Archive for category EEE
Horse owners are being advised to vaccinate all of their horses against Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) as the disease has appeared in several areas of the east coast. News this week has reported that mosquitoes, chicken and birds have been testing positive for EEE with one horse in New York dying from the disease.
Encephalitis in general is a vector-borne (mosquito transmitted) disease that causes the brain to swell. Symptoms are common with other brain injuries including headache, confusion and drowsiness. Eastern Equine Encephalitis was first discovered in the US in Massachusetts after seventy-five horses died unexpectedly. Scientists were first able to isolate it in a horse brain in 1933 and were able to eventually create vaccinations for horses.
While human cases of EEE are rare, it can infect mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Mosquitoes contract the disease from birds and then infect other animals through future bites. Currently there is no cure for EEE.
Horses are very susceptible to EEE as they spend a lot of time outdoors in the presence of potentially dangerous mosquitoes. When bitten by an infected mosquito, a horse won’t show any signs of the disease until 3 weeks later, allowing the virus to do most of its damage. The first sign of EEE is a high fever that lasts for only a few days. After that, horses may appear drowsy, with bursts of excitement and restlessness. They will wander aimlessly and could become paralyzed. Unfortunately 70 to 90% of infected horses will die only a few days after they first displayed symptoms of the disease.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a preventable disease when the horses are properly vaccinated. Please visit the American Association of Equine Practitioners for vaccination recommendations. At Mosquito Squad, we have helped many barn and horse owners take the extra step of horse protection with our misting system which provides the area with continuous mosquito and tick control around a property. If you’re interested in learning how a misting system can help protect your horses against mosquito bites, feel free to give your local Mosquito Squad a call.
Posted by 33social in Culiseta melanura, Eastern equine encephalitis, EEE, Mosquito attracters, Mosquito barrier spray, Mosquito Bites, Mosquito Control, Mosquito misting, Mosquito prevention tricks, Mosquito Squad, Mosquito Types, Mosquito-Borne Illnesses & Diseases, Mosquitoes, Mosquitoes In the News, Outdoor Living Bug Free on October 2, 2011
Most people think that EEE, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, is a disease that only strikes equine such as horses, ponies, mules and donkeys. Though in most cases humans are not at as great a risk of contracting EEE, those with compromised immune systems and health problems, especially among the elderly, are at a higher risk of contracting the illness. EEE is characterized by causing swelling of the brain, although some who become infected will be asymptomatic. Those older individuals that become infected with the virus are more vulnerable to experiencing the more severe side of EEE than most. Early symptoms of EEE are headache, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, cyanosis, convulsions and coma.
What is EEE?
EEE or Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a virus that is spread through the bite of a mosquito carrying the virus. The virus is maintained between a cycle of the mosquito and a bird, and some cases is passed onto what is called a dead-end host such as an equine or a human. Dead end hosts mean that the virus can not be passed any further once it has reached this host. Although many mosquito species are known vectors of the virus the Culiseta melanura mosquito has raised the alarm among states with high reports of EEE, especially among elderly residents and those that are immune compromised. Approximately one-third of all human EEE infections prove fatal.
Who is the Culiseta melanura mosquito?
This mosquito can be found from Canada all the way into Florida and is unique in the way in which it is able to reproduce. Culiseta melanura are cold adapted and have the ability to over-winter their larva until the warm temperatures of spring cause them to awake and begin their vicious cycle of feeding and spreading disease. This mosquito lays its eggs in stagnated pools and wherever water accumulates in quantities of 30 to 300 eggs at one time. This mosquito can reside in a variety of places from old tires, rotting trees to wetlands. Just like other mosquito species the male primarily feeds off nectar, and the female’s feed off blood from unwitting hosts.
What can I do to prevent getting EEE?
The most important way to avoid possible infection is to make sure you don’t get bitten, because the mosquito that bites you could possibly be carrying EEE. Avoid potential mosquito infested areas, make sure to inspect your yard and areas around you home on a regular basis to keep standing water from becoming a nursery for mosquitoes. This particular species of mosquito loves moist areas. Mosquito Squad has developed a helpful way to keep your property safe from mosquitoes by using a system called the 5 T’s of mosquito control. These helpful hints will keep standing water and areas that are prone to accumulated moisture to a minimum, when inspecting your property don’t overlook areas like gutters, and the crevices in outdoor furniture for they make perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes if filled with debris or moisture. You can learn more about the 5 T’s and other helpful hints by visiting http://mosquito-control-blog.com/2011/06/13/the-five-ts-in-mosquito-prevention/
The 5 T’s of mosquito control are:
- Turn over
- Tarps ( remove)
If you are unable to thoroughly inspect your property yourself, then ask a loved one or friend to check the areas surrounding your home for you.
Another way to aid in protecting yourself is to have your yard treated by a licensed professional to kill and prevent mosquitoes that may possibly be lurking. Mosquito Squad offers a full-service mosquito control program from automatic mosquito misting systems to our safe and effective barrier sprays, both of which protect you and your family all season long from the Culiseta melanura and other species of mosquitoes as well.
Contact Mosquito Squad to learn more 877-667-7823 http://www.mosquitosquad.com/
It is not just man’s best friend and your furry feline who are at risk for mosquito-borne illness’s. Many of our beloved pets are at risk to contract deadly diseases from the mosquito, this includes our horses. If you are a horse owner or horse lover who enjoys the company of a gallant steed like I am, then you need to be aware of the dangers that mosquitoes can bring to you and your horse.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is spread by simple mosquito bites and can be fatal to our beloved horses. Eastern Equine Encephalitis is also referred to as “sleeping sickness” among veterinarians and horse folk. It was first recognized in 1831 when 75 horses died in Massachusetts from the illness. This virus was first isolated from the brain of a horse infected with EEE ( Eastern Equine Encephalitis ) ,in 1933 and in 1938 the first confirmed human cases of the disease were identified when 30 children perished as the result of the illness in the northeastern United States.
Symptoms of EEE are usually noticeable about 5 days after a horse has been bitten by an infected mosquito. Initially the horse will seem depressed and become quiet. Other signs include impaired vision, aimless circling and wandering even when stalled, an irregular staggering gait, head pressing and rubbing, an inability to swallow, paralysis, convulsions and eventually death.
Since humans can be infected with Eastern Equine Encephalitis as well, Symptoms in humans infected with the illness may include high fever, chills, sudden onset of a headache and vomiting, disorientation, seizures and coma.
There is no specific treatment for EEE in humans or in equine, care is based on symptoms. So the best treatment is prevention of mosquito bites. Bites can be prevented by reducing the number of mosquitoes in the area. There are a couple of solutions for your horse stables and pastures. In your pasture, Mosquito Squad provides a mosquito barrier spray. This is a safe and effective spray that eliminates 90% or more of the mosquitoes and ticks from the area. It is sprayed every 3 weeks throughout the heavy mosquito season. Mosquito Squad also offers a mosquito misting system. Read this story about our misting system installed in a barn in Nashville.
The illness is rare in humans and common sense safeguards reduce your chance of being bitten by an infected mosquito. Have a licensed professional apply a mosquito barrier spray to your outdoor living areas is a good idea to avoid being bitten.
Even though the illness is rarely seen in humans, the numbers of our equine friends being infected is on the rise. Horses, donkeys, mules and ponies are all at risk of this deadly illness. The threat is real and horse owners need to educate themselves on preventing the illness. Fortunately, there is an EEE vaccine for equine now available. Since there is no treatment for a horse already infected with the illness, vaccinations are essential for the prevention of the disease. The vaccination is given in two doses 30 days apart, and a booster given every six months. These are preferably administered in the early spring through the early fall. Talk to your veterinarian about the appropriate vaccination schedule for your horse.
Prevention of mosquitoes is also key in keeping your equine healthy. Safe stabling practices and eliminating sources of standing water in the barn, paddocks and pasture is essential. This includes moist hay or grain, open containers and water troughs.
Simple safeguards and knowledge should be exercised from your backyard to the stable in order to keep you and your horse happy and healthy. Give Mosquito Squad a call, when can make good “horse sense” out of keeping mosquitoes away. 877-667-7823.